Home » Research Methods » Methodology in the Social Sciences Series
Principles and Practice of Structural Equation Modeling
Third Edition

Rex B. Kline

427 Pages
Size: 7" x 10"
August 2010
ISBN 978-1-60623-876-9
Cat. #3876
Price: $57.00 $48.45
August 2010
ISBN 978-1-60623-877-6
Cat. #3877
Price: $92.00 $78.20
March 2011
ISBN 978-1-60623-878-3
PDF format
Price: $57.00 $48.45

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I. Concepts and Tools

1. Introduction

The Book's Website

Pedagogical Approach

Getting Ready to Learn about SEM

Characteristics of SEM

Widespread Enthusiasm, but with a Cautionary Tale

Family History and a Reminder about Context

Extended Latent Variable Families

Plan of the Book


2. Fundamental Concepts

Multiple Regression

Partial Correlation and Part Correlation

Other Bivariate Correlations

Logistic Regression

Statistical Tests

TOPIC BOX 2.1. The "Big Five" Misinterpretations of Statistical Significance



Recommended Readings


3. Data Preparation

Forms of Input Data

Positive Definiteness

TOPIC BOX 3.1. Causes of Nonpositive Definiteness and Solutions

Data Screening

Selecting Good Measures and Reporting about Them


Recommended Readings


4. Computer Tools

Ease of Use, Not Suspension of Judgment

Human-Computer Interaction

TOPIC BOX 4.1. Graphical Isn't Always Better

Core SEM Programs and Book Website Resources

Other Computer Tools


Recommended Readings

II. Core Techniques

5. Specification

Steps of SEM

Model Diagram Symbols

Specification Concepts

Path Analysis Models

CFA Models

Structural Regression Models

Exploratory SEM


Recommended Readings


6. Identification

General Requirements

Unique Estimates

Rule for Recursive Structural Models

Rules for Nonrecursive Structural Models

Rules for Standard CFA Models

Rules for Nonstandard CFA Models

Rules for SR Models

A Healthy Perspective on Identification

Empirical Underidentification

Managing Identification Problems


Recommended Readings


APPENDIX 6.A. Evaluation of the Rank Condition

7. Estimation

Maximum Likelihood Estimation

TOPIC BOX 7.1. Two-Stage Least Squares Estimation

Detailed Example

Brief Example with a Start Value Problem

Fitting Models to Correlation Matrices

Alternative Estimators

A Healthy Perspective on Estimation


Recommended Readings


APPENDIX 7.A. Start Value Suggestions for Structural Models

APPENDIX 7.B. Effect Decomposition in Nonrecursive Models and the Equilibrium Assumption

8. Hypothesis Testing

Eyes on the Prize

State of Practice, State of Mind

A Healthy Perspective on Fit Statistics

Types of Fit Statistics and "Golden Rules"

Model Chi-Square

Approximate Fit Indexes

Visual Summaries of Fit

Recommended Approach to Model Fit Evaluation

Detailed Example

Testing Hierarchical Models

Comparing Nonhierarchical Models

Power Analysis

Equivalent and Near-Equivalent Models


Recommended Readings


9. Measurement Models and Confirmatory Factor Analysis

Naming and Reification Fallacies

Estimation of CFA Models

Detailed Example

Respecification of Measurement Models

Special Topics and Tests

TOPIC BOX 9.1. Reliability of Construct Measurement

Items as Indicators and Other Methods for Analyzing Items

Estimated Factor Scores

Equivalent CFA Models

Hierarchical CFA Models

Models for Multitrait–Multimethod Data

Measurement Invariance and Multiple-Sample CFA


Recommended Readings


APPENDIX 9.A. Start Value Suggestions for Measurement Models

APPENDIX 9.B. Constraint Interaction in Measurement Models

10. Structural Regression Models

Analyzing SR Models

Estimation of SR Models

Detailed Example

Equivalent SR Models

Single Indicators in Partially Latent SR Models

Cause Indicators and Formative Measurement

TOPIC BOX 10.1. Partial Least Squares Path Modeling

Invariance Testing of SR Models

Reporting Results of SEM Analyses


Recommended Readings


APPENDIX 10.A. Constraint Interaction in SR Models

III. Advanced Techniques, Avoiding Mistakes

11. Mean Structures and Latent Growth Models

Logic of Mean Structures

Identification of Mean Structures

Estimation of Mean Structures

Latent Growth Models

Structured Means in Measurement Models

MIMIC Models as an Alternative to Multiple-Sample Analysis


Recommended Readings

12. Interaction Effects and Multilevel SEM

Interaction Effects of Observed Variables

Interaction Effects in Path Models

Mediation and Moderation Together

Interactive Effects of Latent Variables

Estimation with the Kenny-Judd Method

Alternative Estimation Methods

Rationale of Multilevel Analysis

Basic Multilevel Techniques

Convergence of SEM and MLM

Multilevel SEM


Recommended Readings

13. How to Fool Yourself with SEM

Tripping at the Starting Line: Specification

Improper Care and Feeding: Data

Checking Critical Judgment at the Door: Analysis and Respecification

The Garden Path: Interpretation


Recommended Readings

*Suggested Answers to Exercises

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