Handbook of the Psychology of Religion and Spirituality

Second Edition

Edited by Raymond F. Paloutzian and Crystal L. Park

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May 21, 2013
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Widely regarded as the definitive reference, this volume comprehensively examines the psychological processes associated with religion and spirituality. Leading scholars from multiple psychological subdisciplines present developmental, cognitive, social psychological, cultural, and clinical perspectives on this core aspect of human experience. The forms and functions of religious practices and rituals, conversion experiences, and spiritual struggles are explored. Other key topics include religion as a meaning system, religious influences on prosocial and antisocial behavior, and connections to health, coping, and psychotherapy.

New to This Edition A Choice Outstanding Academic Title

“A must-have primer for all who are committed to the intersection of religion, spirituality, and psychology.”

Family Journal


“Informative, illuminating, and valuable.”

Scientific and Medical Network Online Book Reviews


“By creating the most comprehensive work to date by leading scholars in their respective fields and by giving path and purpose to the psychology of religion through the development of a multilevel interdisciplinary paradigm, Paloutzian and Park have fruitfully contributed to the progression of this field....Offers many of the pieces necessary to continue slowly piecing together our contemporary mosaic of psychological knowledge.”

Journal of Muslim Mental Health


“The editors have done an exceptional job of demonstrating the growth of the field, its multidisciplinarity, its contributions to the advancement of scientific knowledge, and its utility for addressing important religious and spiritual concerns, both individual and collective….Highly recommended. Upper-level undergraduates and above.”

Choice Reviews


“This is more than just another book on the subject of religion/spirituality. It is clearly the work of editors who have been leaders in the field for several decades and who are well aware of the challenges for future research. The contributors are well chosen and references provide a quick overview of recent research on specific themes.”

Doody's Review Service


“Paloutzian and Park have done it again! This second edition matches the quality of its predecessor in providing a comprehensive review of current research. Chapters have been revised and others added that cast the net even farther over interdisciplinary and cross-cultural waters. Scholars and students will benefit greatly from having this valuable reference in hand; clinicians and those working in religious settings should not be without it.”

—W. Paul Williamson, PhD, Department of Psychology, Henderson State University


“The volume captures the intense fascination with religion and spirituality shared by authors from diverse psychological subdisciplines, as well as the complexity of the issues we face in creating a cohesive scientific agenda. The chapters are thoughtful, informed, and provocative, and they demonstrate how disciplinary perspectives shape definitions, what we search for, and what we find.”

—Susan Folkman, PhD, Professor of Medicine Emeritus, University of California, San Francisco


“The second edition of the Handbook brings this exciting, evolving field fully up to date, with chapters from a 'who's who' of leading scholars. All serious researchers, teachers, and clinicians who are engaged with the psychology of religion and spirituality must have this volume on their shelves. It also will be of great value as a graduate course text. I know my own copy will become well worn.”

—Thomas G. Plante, PhD, ABPP, Augustin Cardinal Bea, S.J., University Professor and Director, Spirituality and Health Institute, Santa Clara University


“This comprehensive, up-to-date volume offers compelling concepts and evidence on a broad spectrum of topics. As a text, it would be ideal in graduate courses in psychology, religious studies, and public health. The coverage of links between spirituality, religion, and health and disease issues is especially exciting.”

—Carl E. Thoresen, PhD, Professor Emeritus of Education,Psychology, and Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University


“A vital contribution to a vibrant and growing field of study. Paloutzian and Park have once again organized leading scholars to provide the latest research findings across major areas of both historical and contemporary relevance. Those steeped in the field will appreciate the synthetic focus on key issues, the interdisciplinary sophistication, and the attention to diversity. Newcomers to the psychology of religion and spirituality will find the chapters accessible, with a helpful overview of each area. This is an excellent text for graduate courses and an essential resource for researchers.”

—Steven J. Sandage, PhD, Albert and Jesse Danielsen Professor of Psychology and Theology at Boston University and the Danielsen Institute


“We're living in a time of great interest in how religion arises in human minds and then comes to influence them in profound ways. This handbook is both timely and comprehensive, bringing together an illustrious group of psychologists to explore all major aspects of the psychology of religion. An important resource for advanced students.”

—Ara Norenzayan, PhD, Department of Psychology, University of British Columbia, Canada

Table of Contents

I. Foundations of the Psychology of Religion

1. Recent Progress and Core Issues in the Science of the Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, Raymond F. Paloutzian and Crystal L. Park

2. Defining Religion and Spirituality, Doug Oman

3. Measurement Assessment and Issues in the Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, Peter C. Hill

4. Research Methods in the Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, Ralph W. Hood, Jr., and Jacob A. Belzen

5. Psychodynamic Psychology and Religion, Jozef Corveleyn, Patrick Luyten, and Jessie Dezutter

6. Evolutionary Psychology as a Foundation for the Psychology of Religion, Lee A. Kirkpatrick

7. Building Blocks of Sacralities: A New Basis for Comparison across Cultures and Religions, Ann Taves

II. Religion through the Developmental Lens

8. Religious and Spiritual Development in Childhood, Rebekah A. Richert and Pehr Granqvist

9. Religious Development from Adolescence to Middle Adulthood, Michael R. Levenson, Carolyn M. Aldwin, and Heidi Igarashi

10. Old Persons, Old Age, Aging, and Religion, Susan H. McFadden

III. Religion and Basic Psychology Subdisciplines

11. The Neuropsychology of Religious Experience, Patrick McNamara and P. Monroe Butler

12. Exploring Religion's Basement: The Cognitive Science of Religion, Justin L. Barrett

13. Gods and Goals: Religion and Purposeful Action, Robert A. Emmons and Sarah A. Schnitker

14. The Religious Shaping of Feeling: Implications of Affect Valuation Theory, Jeanne L. Tsai, Birgit Koopmann-Holm, Masako Miyazaki, and Camaron Ochs

15. The Role of Personality in Understanding Religious and Spiritual Constructs, Ralph L. Piedmont and Teresa A. Wilkins

16. Religiousness, Social Psychology, and Behavior, Michael E. Nielsen, Arthur T. Hatton, and Michael J. Donahue

17. Cultural and Cross-Cultural Psychology of Religion, Vassilis Saroglou and Adam B. Cohen

IV. The Construction and Expression of Religion and Spirituality

18. Religion and Meaning, Crystal L. Park

19. Religious and Spiritual Struggles, Julie J. Exline and Eric D. Rose

20. Conversion, Deconversion, and Spiritual Transformation: A Multilevel Interdisciplinary View, Raymond F. Paloutzian, Sebastian Murken, Heinz Streib, and Sussan Rößler-Namini

21. Mystical, Spiritual, and Religious Experiences, Ralph W. Hood, Jr., and Zhuo Chen

22. Ritual and Prayer: Forms, Functions, and Relationships, Kevin L. Ladd and Bernard Spilka

23. Religious Fundamentalism, Right-Wing Authoritarianism, and Prejudice: Insights from Meta-Analyses, Implicit Social Cognition, and Social Neuroscience, Wade C. Rowatt, Megan Johnson Shen, Jordan P. LaBouff, and Alfredo Gonzalez

24. Religion and Spirituality and Forgiveness, Everett L. Worthington, Jr., Don E. Davis, Joshua N. Hook, Daryl R. Van Tongeren, Aubrey L. Gartner, David J. Jennings II, Chelsea L. Greer, and Yin Lin

25. How Religion Can Support Self-Control and Moral Behavior, Anne L. Zell and Roy F. Baumeister

V. The Psychology of Religion and Applied Areas

26. Religion, Spirituality, and Health, Kevin S. Masters and Stephanie A. Hooker

27. Religion, Spirituality, and Mental Health, Crystal L. Park and Jeanne M. Slattery

28. The Religious Dimension of Coping: Advances in Theory, Research, and Practice, Kenneth I. Pargament, Melissa D. Falb, Gene G. Ano, and Amy B. Wachholtz

29. Mindfulness in Psychology and Religion, Michael R. Levenson and Carolyn M. Aldwin

30. Addressing Religiousness and Spirituality in Psychotherapy: Advancing Evidence-Based Practice, Edward P. Shafranske

31. From Concept to Science: Continuing Steps in Workplace Spirituality Research, Peter C. Hill, Carole L. Jurkiewicz, Robert A. Giacalone, and Louis W. Fry

32. Religion and the Staircase to Terrorism, Fathali M. Moghaddam, Zachary Warren, and Karen Love

VI. Conclusion and Future Directions

33. Directions for the Future of the Psychology of Religion and Spirituality: Research Advances in Methodology and Meaning Systems, Crystal L. Park and Raymond F. Paloutzian


About the Editors

Raymond F. Paloutzian, PhD, is Professor Emeritus of Experimental and Social Psychology at Westmont College and consultant to the Religion, Experience, and Mind (REM) Lab Group at the University of California, Santa Barbara. He has been a visiting professor at Stanford University and a guest professor at Katholieke Universiteit in Leuven, Belgium. Dr. Paloutzian is a past president of the Society for the Psychology of Religion and Spirituality (Division 36) of the American Psychological Association (APA) and is a Fellow of five APA divisions and of the Association for Psychological Science. For 18 years, he was Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal for the Psychology of Religion. His books include Handbook of the Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, Second Edition (coedited with Crystal L. Park), and Invitation to the Psychology of Religion, Third Edition. Dr. Paloutzian has given invited talks on the psychology of religion in global perspective in various countries around the world.

Crystal L. Park, PhD, is Professor of Psychology at the University of Connecticut. She is Associate Editor of Psychology and Health, the Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, and The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion. Dr. Park is a past president and the current awards chair of APA Division 36, and a recipient of the Division's William James Award. Her research interests include the roles of religious beliefs and religious coping in response to stressful life events, the phenomenon of stress-related growth, and people's attempts to find meaning in or create meaning out of negative life events.

Contributors

Carolyn M. Aldwin, PhD, is Professor in Human Development and Family Sciences at Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon.

Gene G. Ano, PhD, is Professor in the Department of Psychology and Education at Mount San Antonio College, Walnut, California.

Justin L. Barrett, PhD, is the Thrive Professor of Developmental Science and Director of Thrive Center for Human Development, at Fuller Theological Seminary Graduate School of Psychology, Pasadena, California.

Roy F. Baumeister, PhD, is Eppes Eminent Professor in the Department of Psychology at Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida.

Jacob A. Belzen, PhD, is Full Professor of Psychology of Religion at the University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

P. Monroe Butler, MD, PhD, MTS, is completing medical studies at Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts.

Zhuo Chen, MS, is a PhD student in Psychology at the University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon.

Adam B. Cohen, PhD, is Associate Professor, CARMA Lab, in the Department of Psychology at Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona.

Jozef Corveleyn, PhD, is Professor, Faculty of Psychology at Katholieke Universiteit, Leuven, Belgium, and part-time Professor of Clinical Psychology of Religion, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences at the Free University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Don E. Davis, PhD, is Assistant Professor of Psychology at Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia.

Jessie Dezutter, PhD, is a postdoctoral researcher at the Center for the Psychology of Religion, Faculty of Psychology at Katholieke Universiteit, Leuven, Belgium.

Michael J. Donahue, PhD, is Associate Professor and Director of Research Training at the Institute for the Psychological Sciences, Arlington, Virginia.

Robert A. Emmons, PhD, is Professor of Psychology at the University of California, Davis, Davis, California.

Julie J. Exline, PhD, is Associate Professor of Psychology at Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio.

Melissa D. Falb, MA, is a PhD student in the Department of Psychology at Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, Ohio.

Louis W. Fry, PhD, is in the Department of Management at Tarleton State University–Central Texas, Killeen, Texas.

Aubrey L. Gartner, PhD, is a postdoctoral Fellow in Psychosocial Rehabilitation and Recovery Oriented Services at the Durham Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina

Robert A. Giacalone, PhD, is Professor in the Department of Human Resource Management at Fox School of Business and Management, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Alfredo Gonzalez, BA, is a Senior Helpline Supervisor at the Area Agency on Aging, Phoenix, Arizona.

Pehr Granqvist, PhD, is Associate Professor in the Department of Psychology at Stockholm University, Sweden.

Chelsea L. Greer, MS, is a PhD student in Counseling Psychology at Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia.

Arthur T. Hatton, BA, is an MS student in Psychology at Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, Georgia.

Peter C. Hill, PhD, is Professor of Social Psychology in the Rosemead School of Psychology at Biola University, La Mirada, California.

Ralph W. Hood, Jr., PhD, is Professor of Psychology at the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga, Chattanooga, Tennessee.

Joshua N. Hook, PhD, is Assistant Professor of Psychology at the University of North Texas, Denton, Texas.

Stephanie A. Hooker, MA, is a PhD student in Clinical Health Psychology at the University of Colorado Denver, Denver, Colorado.

Heidi Igarashi, MS, is a doctoral student in Human Development and Family Sciences at Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon.

David J. Jennings II, MS, is a PhD student in Counseling Psychology at Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia.

Carole L. Jurkiewicz, PhD, is John W. Dupuy Endowed Professor and Women’s Hospital Distinguished Professor of Healthcare Management at Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana.

Lee A. Kirkpatrick, PhD, is Professor and Director of Graduate Studies in the Department of Psychology at College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia.

Birgit Koopmann-Holm, MA, is a PhD candidate in Psychology at Stanford University, Stanford, California.

Jordan P. LaBouff, PhD, is Assistant Professor in the Department of Psychology and Honors College at the University of Maine, Orono, Maine.

Kevin L. Ladd, PhD, is Associate Professor in the Department of Psychology at Indiana University South Bend, South Bend, Indiana.

Michael R. Levenson, PhD, is Research Associate Professor in Human Development and Family Sciences at Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon.

Yin Lin, MS, is a PhD student in Counseling Psychology at Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia.

Karen Love, MA, lives in Arlington, Virginia.

Patrick Luyten, PhD, is Associate Professor of Clinical Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, at Katholieke Universiteit, Leuven, Belgium.

Kevin S. Masters, PhD, is Professor of Psychology and Program Director of Clinical Health Psychology at the University of Colorado Denver, Denver, Colorado.

Susan H. McFadden, PhD, is Professor of Psychology at the University of Wisconsin Oshkosh, Oshkosh, Wisconsin.

Patrick McNamara, PhD, is Associate Professor of Neurology and Psychiatry at Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts.

Masako Miyazaki, BFA, lives in Oakland, California.

Fathali M. Moghaddam, PhD, is Professor in the Department of Psychology and Director of the Conflict Resolution Program in the Department of Government, Georgetown University, Washington, DC.

Sebastian Murken, PhD, is a Clinical Psychologist in Germany and is an Honorary Professor of Psychology of Religion at University of Marburg, Germany.

Michael E. Nielsen, PhD, is Professor and Chair of the Department of Psychology at Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, Georgia.

Camaron Ochs, BA, lives in Moraga, California.

Doug Oman, PhD, is Associate Adjunct Professor in the School of Public Health at the University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California.

Raymond F. Paloutzian, PhD, is Professor Emeritus of Experimental and Social Psychology at Westmont College in Santa Barbara, California.

Kenneth I. Pargament, PhD, is Professor of Psychology at Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, Ohio.

Crystal L. Park, PhD, is Professor of Psychology at the University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut.

Ralph L. Piedmont, PhD, is Professor of Pastoral Counseling at Loyola University, Columbia, Maryland.

Rebekah A. Richert, PhD, is Associate Professor in the Department of Psychology at the University of California, Riverside, Riverside, California.

Eric D. Rose, PhD, is a postdoctoral Clinical Fellow of Counseling and Psychological Services at Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey.

Sussan Rößler-Namini, PhD, is a Research Associate of the Psychology of Religion Research Group at the University of Trier, Bad Kreuznach, Germany.

Wade C. Rowatt, PhD, is Associate Professor and Director of the PhD program in the Department of Psychology and Neuroscience at Baylor University, Waco, Texas.

Vassilis Saroglou, PhD, is Professor at the Centre for Psychology of Religion, Department of Psychology at Université Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium.

Sarah A. Schnitker, PhD, is Assistant Professor of Psychology at the Travis Research Institute at Fuller Theological Seminary, Pasadena, California.

Edward P. Shafranske, PhD, ABPP, is Professor of Psychology, Muriel Lipsey Endowed Chair for Counseling and Clinical Psychology, and Director of the PsyD program at Pepperdine University, Irvine, California; and lectures in the Psychiatry Residency Program at the University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California.

Megan Johnson Shen, PhD, is a postdoctoral fellow in the Department of Oncological Sciences at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York.

Jeanne M. Slattery, PhD, is Professor of Psychology at Clarion University of Pennsylvania, Clarion, Pennsylvania.

Bernard Spilka, PhD, is Professor Emeritus in the Department of Psychology at the University of Denver, Denver, Colorado.

Heinz Streib, PhD, is Professor of Religious Education and Director at the Research Center for Biographical Studies in Contemporary Religion at Bielefeld University, Bielefeld, Germany.

Ann Taves, PhD, is Professor of Religious Studies at the University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California.

Jeanne L. Tsai, PhD, is Associate Professor of Psychology and Director of the Stanford Culture and Emotion Laboratory at Stanford University, Stanford, California.

Daryl R. Van Tongeren, PhD, is Assistant Professor of Psychology at Hope College, Holland, Michigan.

Amy B. Wachholtz, PhD, is Assistant Professor of Psychiatry at University of Massachusetts Medical School and Director of Health Psychology at the University of Massachusetts Memorial Medical Center, Worcester, Massachusetts.

Zachary Warren, MA, MDiv, is a PhD student in Psychology at Georgetown University, Washington, DC.

Teresa A. Wilkins, MS, is a PhD student in Pastoral Counseling Department at Loyola University, Columbia, Maryland.

Everett L. Worthington, Jr., PhD, is Professor of Psychology at Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia.

Anne L. Zell, PhD, is Assistant Professor in the Department of Psychology at Augustana College, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

Audience

Social and clinical psychologists, pastoral counselors, and students and researchers in these fields; faculty and students in religious studies.

Course Use

Serves as a text in graduate-level courses such as Psychology of Religion, Psychology of Spirituality, and Pastoral Counseling.
Previous editions published by Guilford:

First Edition, © 2005
ISBN: 9781572309227
New to this edition: