This important reference and text brings together leading neuroscientists to describe approaches to the study of memory. Among major approaches covered are lesions; electrophysiology; single-unit recording; pharmacology; and molecular genetics. Chapters are organized into three sections, presenting state-of-the-art studies of memory in humans, nonhuman primates, and rodents and birds. Each chapter explicates the theoretical and methodological underpinnings of the authors' research program, reviews the latest empirical findings, and identifies salient directions for future investigation. Included are more than 50 illustrations.