Atlas of Moral Psychology

Edited by Kurt Gray and Jesse Graham

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January 30, 2018
ISBN 9781462532568
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586 Pages
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November 22, 2019
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586 Pages
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This comprehensive and cutting-edge volume maps out the terrain of moral psychology, a dynamic and evolving area of research. In 57 concise chapters, leading authorities and up-and-coming scholars explore fundamental issues and current controversies. The volume systematically reviews the empirical evidence base and presents influential theories of moral judgment and behavior. It is organized around the key questions that must be addressed for a complete understanding of the moral mind.

“The contributors, who include both philosophers and psychologists, are acknowledged experts in the field….Each essay is framed as an answer to a specific question, such as ‘What do we evaluate when we evaluate moral character?’ and both the question and an abbreviated version of the answer are printed at the head of each chapter. This feature makes the book very user-friendly, particularly for students and readers new to moral psychology….Recommended. Undergraduates and above.”

Choice Reviews


“The tremendous recent growth of interest in moral psychology has yielded no shortage of deep debate and thorny thickets. Gray and Graham have brought together a talented array of scholars who are working to cut through these intellectual brambles. Their objective is nothing short of mapping the full complexity of the moral domain. This volume is a major achievement.”

—Linda J. Skitka, PhD, Department of Psychology, University of Illinois at Chicago


“A gift for anyone interested in moral psychology. The Atlas is a masterful, state-of-the-art compendium of descriptive and theoretical work on moral judgments, emotions, and reasoning, as well as the compulsive force of parochial social norms and the human experience of self-evidently appealing universal values. Eminent scholars from diverse schools of thought explore fundamental questions: What is a moral judgment? Is it anything more than a self-affirming gut feeling? Why do people often disagree with each other about what is right and wrong? Does being moral mean being highly susceptible to fear (as Nietzsche once proposed)? Is there such a thing as moral truth? Students of the human mind looking for a map of its ethical component should be very happy.”

—Richard A. Shweder, PhD, Harold Higgins Swift Distinguished Service Professor, Department of Comparative Human Development, University of Chicago


“The last two decades have seen an explosion in the number of philosophers and scientists turning to the study of moral psychology. The result is a thriving field—the most robustly interdisciplinary in the academy—dedicated to discovering how the mind works out moral matters. If you want to know where moral psychology is at and where it’s heading, look no further than the Atlas of Moral Psychology. In 57 provocative chapters, a stellar group of leading researchers ask, and begin to answer, the questions that will define the field for years to come.”

—John M. Doris, PhD, Philosophy–Neuroscience–Psychology Program and Philosophy Department, Washington University in St. Louis

Table of Contents

Chapter-Opening Questions and Answers

I. Morality and Thinking

1. Can We Understand Moral Thinking without Understanding Thinking?, Joshua D. Greene

2. Reasoning at the Root of Morality, Elliot Turiel

3. Moral Judgment: Reflective, Interactive, Spontaneous, Challenging, and Always Evolving, Melanie Killen & Audun Dahl

4. On the Possibility of Intuitive and Deliberative Processes Working in Parallel in Moral Judgment, Kees van den Bos

5. The Wrong and the Bad, Shaun Nichols

II. Morality and Feeling

6. Empathy Is a Moral Force, Jamil Zaki

7. Moral Values and Motivations: How Special Are They?, Ryan Miller & Fiery Cushman

8. A Component Process Model of Disgust, Anger, and Moral Judgment, Hanah A. Chapman

9. A Functional Conflict Theory of Moral Emotions, Roger Giner-Sorolla

10. Getting Emotions Right in Moral Psychology, Piercarlo Valdesolo

III. Morality, Social Cognition, and Identity

11. What Do We Evaluate When We Evaluate Moral Character?, Eric G. Helzer & Clayton R. Critcher

12. Moral Cognition and Its Basis in Social Cognition and Social Regulation, John Voiklis & Bertram Malle

13. Morality Is Personal, Justin F. Landy & Eric Luis Uhlmann

14. A Social Cognitive Model of Moral Identity, Karl Aquino & Adam Kay

15. Identity Is Essentially Moral, Nina Strohminger

16. The Core of Morality Is the Moral Self, Paul Conway

17. Thinking Morally about Animals, Stephen Loughnan & Jared Piazza

IV. Morality and Intergroup Conflict

18. Morality Is for Choosing Sides, Peter DeScioli & Robert Kurzban

19. Morality for Us versus Them, Adam Waytz & Liane Young

20. Pleasure in Response to Outgroup Pain as a Motivator of Intergroup Aggression, Mina Cikara

21. How Can Universal Stereotypes Be Immoral?, Susan T. Fiske

V. Morality and Culture

22. Moral Foundations Theory: On the Advantages of Moral Pluralism over Moral Monism, Jesse Graham, Jonathan Haidt, Matt Motyl, Peter Meindl, Carol Iskiwitch, & Marlon Mooijman

23. The Model of Moral Motives: A Map of the Moral Domain, Ronnie Janoff-Bulman & Nate C. Carnes

24. Relationship Regulation Theory, Tage S. Rai

25. A Stairway to Heaven: A Terror Management Theory Perspective on Morality, Andrea M. Yetzer, Tom Pyszczynski, & Jeff Greenberg

26. Moral Heroes Are Puppets, Jeremy Frimer

27. Morality: A Historical Invention, Edouard Machery

28. The History of Moral Norms, Jesse J. Prinz

VI. Morality and the Body

29. The Moralization of the Body: Protecting and Expanding the Boundaries of the Self, Gabriela Pavarini & Simone Schnall

30. Grounded Morality, Simon M. Laham & Justin J. Kelly

VII. Morality and Beliefs

31. Moral Vitalism, Brock Bastian

32. The Objectivity of Moral Beliefs, Geoffrey P. Goodwin

33. Folk Theories in the Moral Domain, Sara Gottlieb & Tania Lombrozo

34. Free Will and Moral Psychology, Roy F. Baumeister

35. The Geographies of Religious and Nonreligious Morality, Brett Mercier & Azim Shariff

36. The Egocentric Teleological Bias: How Self-Serving Morality Shapes Perceptions of Intelligent Design, Jesse L. Preston

VIII. Dynamic Moral Judgment

37. Moralization: How Acts Become Wrong, Chelsea Schein & Kurt Gray

38. Moral Coherence Processes and Denial of Moral Complexity, Brittany S. Liu, Sean P. Wojcik, & Peter H. Ditto

39. What Is Blame and Why Do We Love It?, Mark D. Alicke, Ross Rogers, & Sarah Taylor

IX. Developmental and Evolutionary Roots of Morality

40. Do Animals Have a Sense of Fairness?, Katherine McAuliffe & Laurie R. Santos

41. The Infantile Roots of Sociomoral Evaluations, Julia Van de Vondervoort & J. Kiley Hamlin

42. Atlas Hugged: The Foundations of Human Altruism, Felix Warneken

43. The Developmental Origins of Infants’ Distributive Fairness Concerns, Jessica A. Sommerville & Talee Ziv

44. Vulnerability-Based Morality, Anton J. M. Dijker

45. The Attachment Approach to Moral Judgment, Aner Govrin

46. Ethogenesis: Evolution, Early Experience, and Moral Becoming, Darcia Narvaez

X. Moral Behavior

47. On the Distinction between Unethical and Selfish Behavior, Jackson G. Lu, Ting Zhang, Derek D. Rucker, & Adam D. Galinsky

48. In Search of Moral Equilibrium: Person, Situation, and Their Interplay in Behavioral Ethics, Julia J. Lee & Francesca Gino

49. Unconflicted Virtue, Kate Schmidt

50. Moral Clarity, Scott S. Wiltermuth & David T. Newman

XI. Studying Morality

51. Why Developmental Neuroscience Is Critical for the Study of Morality, Jean Decety & Jason M. Cowell

52. Implicit Moral Cognition, C. Daryl Cameron, Julian A. Scheffer, & Victoria L. Spring

53. Into the Wild: Big Data Analytics in Moral Psychology, Joseph Hoover, Morteza Dehghani, Kate Johnson, Rumen Iliev, & Jesse Graham

54. Applied Moral Psychology, Yoel Inbar

XII. Clarifying Morality

55. The Moral Domain, Stephen Stich

56. There Is No Important Distinction between Moral and Nonmoral Cognition, Joshua Knobe

57. Asking the Right Questions in Moral Psychology, Walter Sinnott-Armstrong

Index


About the Editors

Kurt Gray, PhD, is Assistant Professor of Psychology and Neuroscience at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. He studies moral psychology, mind perception, and agent-based modeling. Dr. Gray has been named a Rising Star by the Association for Psychological Science, which awarded him the Janet Spence Award for Transformative Early Career Research. He has also received the Sage Young Scholar Award, the Wegner Theoretical Innovation Prize from the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, and the Early Career Award and Best Social Cognition Paper Award from the International Social Cognition Network, and is a Fellow of the Society of Experimental Social Psychology. Widely cited in the media, Dr. Gray has spoken at two TED events and is coauthor (with Daniel M. Wegner) of a book for general readers, The Mind Club: Who Thinks, What Feels, and Why it Matters. His website is www.mpmlab.org.

Jesse Graham, PhD, is Associate Professor of Management at the Eccles School of Business, University of Utah. He studies people’s core moral, political, and religious convictions. Dr. Graham is a Fellow of the Society of Experimental Social Psychology and of the Moral Psychology Research Group. He has been named a Rising Star by the Association for Psychological Science and also has been honored with the Sage Young Scholar Award, the General Education Teacher of the Year Award from the University of Southern California, the Award for Excellence in Scholarship in the Sciences from the University of Virginia, and the Morton Deutsch Award for best paper published in Social Justice Research. Dr. Graham is coeditor (with Piercarlo Valdesolo) of Social Psychology of Political Polarization.

Contributors

Mark D. Alicke, PhD, Department of Psychology, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio

Karl Aquino, PhD, UBC Sauder School of Business, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

Brock Bastian, PhD, Melbourne School of Psychological Sciences, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia

Roy F. Baumeister, PhD, Department of Psychology, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida

C. Daryl Cameron, PhD, Department of Psychology, The Pennsylvania State University,

University Park, Pennsylvania

Nate C. Carnes, PhD, Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, Massachusetts

Hanah A. Chapman, PhD, Department of Psychology, Brooklyn College, Brooklyn, New York

Mina Cikara, PhD, Department of Psychology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts

Paul Conway, PhD, Department of Psychology, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida

Jason M. Cowell, PhD, Department of Psychology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois

Clayton R. Critcher, PhD, Haas School of Business, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California

Fiery Cushman, PhD, Department of Psychology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts

Audun Dahl, PhD, Department of Psychology, University of California, Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, California

Jean Decety, PhD, Department of Psychology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois

Morteza Dehghani, PhD, Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California

Peter DeScioli, PhD, Department of Political Science, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York

Anton J. M. Dijker, PhD, Department of Health Promotion, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands Contributors

Peter H. Ditto, PhD, Department of Psychology and Social Behavior, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California

Susan T. Fiske, PhD, Department of Psychology, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey

Jeremy A. Frimer, PhD, Department of Psychology, University of Winnipeg, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada

Adam D. Galinsky, PhD, Columbia Business School, Columbia University, New York, New York

Roger Giner-Sorolla, PhD, School of Psychology, Keynes College, University of Kent, Canterbury, United Kingdom

Francesca Gino, PhD, Harvard Business School, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts

Geoffrey P. Goodwin, PhD, Department of Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Sara Gottlieb, PhD, Department of Psychology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California

Aner Govrin, PhD, Department of Psychology, Bar Ilan University, Tel Aviv, Israel

Jesse Graham, PhD, Eccles School of Business, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah

Kurt Gray, PhD, Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina

Jeff Greenberg, PhD, Department of Psychology, The University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona

Joshua D. Greene, PhD, Department of Psychology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts

Jonathan Haidt, PhD, New York University Stern School of Business, New York University, New York, New York

J. Kiley Hamlin, PhD, Department of Psychology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

Eric G. Helzer, PhD, Johns Hopkins Carey Business School, Johns Hopkins University,

Baltimore, Maryland

Joseph Hoover, MS, Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California

Rumen Iliev, PhD, Ford School of Public Policy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan

Yoel Inbar, PhD, Department of Psychology, University of Toronto Scarborough, Scarborough, Ontario, Canada

Carol Iskiwitch, MA, Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California

Ronnie Janoff-Bulman, PhD, Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, Massachusetts

Kate Johnson, MA, Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles,

California

Adam Kay, PhD, Sauder School of Business, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

Justin J. Kelly, BSc, Melbourne School of Psychological Sciences, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia

Melanie Killen, PhD, Department of Human Development and Quantitative Methodology, University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, Maryland

Joshua Knobe, PhD, Departments of Philosophy, Psychology, and Linguistics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut

Robert Kurzban, PhD, Department of Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Simon M. Laham, PhD, Melbourne School of Psychological Sciences, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia

Justin F. Landy, PhD, The University of Chicago Booth School of Business, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois

Julia J. Lee, PhD, Stephen M. Ross School of Business, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan

Brittany S. Liu, PhD, Department of Psychology, Kalamazoo College, Kalamazoo, Michigan

Tania Lombrozo, PhD, Department of Psychology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California

Stephen Loughnan, PhD, Department of Psychology, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

Jackson G. Lu, MPhil, Columbia Business School, Columbia University, New York, New York

Edouard Machery, PhD, Department of History and Philosophy of Science, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Bertram F. Malle, PhD, Department of Cognitive, Linguistic and Psychological Sciences, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island

Katherine McAuliffe, PhD, Department of Psychology, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts

Peter Meindl, PhD, Department of Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Brett Mercier, MS, Department of Psychology and Social Behavior, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California

Ryan Miller, BA, Department of Psychology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts

Marlon Mooijman, PhD, Kellogg School of Management, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois

Matt Motyl, PhD, Department of Psychology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois

Darcia Narvaez, PhD, Department of Psychology, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana

David T. Newman, JD, USC Marshall School of Business, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California

Shaun Nichols, PhD, Department of Philosophy, The University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona

Gabriela Pavarini, PhD, Department of Psychology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Jared Piazza, PhD, Department of Psychology, Lancaster University, Lancaster, United Kingdom

Jesse L. Preston, PhD, Department of Psychology, University of Warwick, Coventry, United Kingdom

Jesse J. Prinz, PhD, Department of Philosophy, City University of New York Graduate Center, New York, New York

Tom Pyszczynski, PhD, Department of Psychology, University of Colorado Colorado Springs, Colorado Springs, Colorado

Tage S. Rai, PhD, MIT Sloan School of Management, Massachusetts Institute ofm Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts

Ross Rogers, MS, Department of Psychology, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio

Derek D. Rucker, PhD, Kellogg School of Management, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois

Laurie R. Santos, PhD, Department of Psychology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut

Julian A. Scheffer, BSc, Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa

Chelsea Schein, BA, Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina

Kate C. S. Schmidt, MA, Department of Philosophy, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri

Simone Schnall, PhD, Department of Psychology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Azim Shariff, PhD, Department of Psychology, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon

Walter Sinnott-Armstrong, PhD, Department of Philosophy, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina

Jessica A. Sommerville, PhD, Department of Psychology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington

Victoria L. Spring, BA, Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences,m University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa

Stephen Stich, PhD, Department of Philosophy and the Center for Cognitive Science, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey

Nina Strohminger, PhD, The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Sarah Taylor, MA, Department of Psychology, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio

Elliot Turiel, PhD, Graduate School of Education, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California

Eric Luis Uhlmann, PhD, INSEAD, Singapore

Piercarlo Valdesolo, PhD, Department of Psychology, Claremont McKenna College, Claremont, California

Julia W. Van de Vondervoort, MA, Department of Psychology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

Kees van den Bos, MA, Department of Socialand Organizational Psychology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands

John Voiklis, PhD, Department of Cognitive, Linguistic and Psychological Sciences, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island

Felix Warneken, PhD, Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan

Adam Waytz, PhD, Kellogg School of Management, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois

Scott S. Wiltermuth, PhD, USC Marshall School of Business, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California

Sean P. Wojcik, PhD, Data and Analytics, Upworthy, New York, New York

Andrea M. Yetzer, MA, Department of Psychology, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois

Liane Young, PhD, Department of Psychology, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts

Jamil Zaki, PhD, Department of Psychology, Stanford University, Stanford, California

Ting Zhang, PhD, Columbia Business School, Columbia University, New York, New York

Talee Ziv, PhD, Department of Psychology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington

Audience

Students and researchers in social psychology; also of interest to developmental psychologists.

Course Use

May serve as a supplemental text in graduate-level courses.