Interventions Following Mass Violence and Disasters

Strategies for Mental Health Practice

Edited by Elspeth Cameron Ritchie, Patricia J. Watson, and Matthew J. Friedman

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December 23, 2005
ISBN 9781593852566
Price: $92.00 $78.20
430 Pages
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June 25, 2007
ISBN 9781593855895
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430 Pages
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June 19, 2015
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430 Pages
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430 Pages
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Grounded in the best science available, this essential volume presents practical guidelines for effective clinical intervention in the immediate, intermediate, and long-term aftermath of large-scale traumatic events. Vital lessons learned from a variety of mass traumas and natural disasters are incorporated into the book's thorough review of strategies for helping specific victim and survivor populations. The editors and authors include over 40 leading experts in disaster mental health. Of crucial importance, they clearly summarize the empirical evidence supporting each intervention and provide other guidance based on experience and consensus recommendations.

“This well-written, interesting, and educational volume grows out of an international conference and evidence-based psychological intervention for victims and survivors of mass violence....I congratulate this distinguished group of authors on their well-written, understandable, and clear attempt to describe our current state of knowledge and to develop a research map leading to future important directions.”

Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic


“Through the use of extensive citations and a compendious index, readers will be able to navigate the text easily, while they have their knowledge base expanded and their clinical assumptions potentially challenged. This is a book that will undoubtedly be called upon again and again as the field of disaster mental health becomes more cohesive and as the treating community develops its agendas for preparedness, training, and treatment.”

Psychiatry


“This book is a must read for practitioners who are likely to be first responders (regardless of discipline or practice focus) or minimally, service providers following a disaster, whether man-made or natural; community leaders who hold responsibility (either formal or informal) for safeguarding community members; and government officials and agencies (both public and private) to whom victims of disasters will turn immediately following such disasters. The content provided in the book provides a conceptual understanding of the disaster crisis reaction with implications for individuals, families, communities, and community agencies or infrastructures; theoretical underpinnings for disaster intervention for all of the aforementioned; intervention models that have been proven to support natural coping as well as mediate post traumatic stress disorder symptomatology; practical and doable guidelines for disaster planning for communities and agencies; and highlights how mental health professionals can utilize their expertise in consulting with agencies and communities needing assistance with disaster recovery planning. Educators, trainers, and students/trainees will find the book to be a powerhouse of information for knowledge and skill enhancement. Contributors to the book span the interdisciplinary realm, making the content appropriate for consumption and use by social workers, psychiatrists, physicians, psychologists, community organizers/activists, school teachers, social workers, staff and guidance counselors, nurses, family therapists, agency directors, etc....The information contained in the book is easy to read and understand.”

Families in Society


“Places the response to concerns about mental health within the fragmented environment that follows a catastrophe....Contains useful advice on practical mental health interventions.”

The New England Journal of Medicine


“This book would be a welcome addition to the bookcase, desk, or library of any clinician involved in treating survivors of disaster and trauma. It provides a sound synopsis and analysis of intervention techniques and strategies at different stages [of] post-disaster, brings attention to organizational and programmatic challenges, and highlights the importance of working from an evidence-based approach when possible....Will easily function as one of the important texts in the area until further advances in the field are made.”

PsycCRITIQUES


“This state-of-the-art volume is extremely relevant to practitioners and researchers in all areas of mental health. Psychologists, social workers, physicians, nurses, and counselors will gain insight into the complexities of treatment for survivors of mass violence and disasters. The most important contributors in the field provide practical guidance on a wide range of topics, including early intervention, contextual factors, organizational consultation, and interventions with children. Chapters address what we know—and what we don’t know—in this comprehensive examination of a new and growing literature. Controversial issues regarding treatment are dealt with in a thoughtful manner. This text is essential reading for anyone doing trauma-related work.”

—Victoria Follette, PhD, Department of Psychology, University of Nevada, Reno


“A fabulous and timely addition to the psychological and behavioral health toolkit. This insightful and unique exploration of interventions after mass violence and disaster is a jewel that should be required reading for all those working in, teaching about, or preparing for work in disaster response.”

—CDR Dori B. Reissman, MD, MPH, U.S. Public Health Service and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention


“The struggle to develop optimal ways of managing the psychological effects of war and disaster has always been at the forefront of theory and practice in mental health. This book is a chapter in this struggle, prompted by the changed horizon since September 11. The authors explore the challenge of how to manage the effects of psychological trauma in the light of constantly emerging knowledge. The book masterfully balances the need for careful scientific skepticism with the need to take action to provide the best help possible to trauma survivors. This is essential reading for researchers and practitioners alike.”

—Alexander C. McFarlane, MD, Centre for Military and Veterans' Health, University of Adelaide, Australia


“This is absolutely the new definitive text on the acute treatment of mass trauma effects. Edited and written by leaders in the field, this volume addresses almost every conceivable aspect of mental health response to disasters and mass violence. The practical information on assessment, treatment, and training and consultation—let alone the comprehensive literature reviews—make this book a 'must have.' Highly recommended!”

—John Briere, PhD, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, LAC-USC Medical Center and Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California

Table of Contents

I. Introduction

1. Overview, Matthew J. Friedman, Elspeth Cameron Ritchie, and Patricia J. Watson

2. Models of Early Intervention Following Mass Violence and Other Trauma, Josef I. Ruzek

II. Preparation, Training, and Needs Assessment

3. Improving Resilience Trajectories Following Mass Violence and Disaster, Patricia J. Watson, Elspeth Cameron Ritchie, James Demer, Paul Bartone, and Betty J. Pfefferbaum

4. Disaster Mental Health Training: Guidelines, Considerations, and Recommendations, Bruce H. Young, Josef I. Ruzek, Marlene Wong, Mark S. Salzer, and April J. Naturale

5. Immediate Needs Assessment Following Catastrophic Disaster Incidents, Anthony H. Speier

III. Mental Health Interventions

6. Interventions for Traumatic Stress: Theoretical Basis, Arieh Y. Shalev

7. The Context of Providing Immediate Postevent Intervention, Roderick J. Ørner, Adrian T. Kent, Betty J. Pfefferbaum, Beverley Raphael, and Patricia J. Watson

8. The Immediate Response to Disaster: Guidelines for Adult Psychological First Aid, Bruce H. Young

9. Intermediate Interventions, Richard A. Bryant and Brett T. Litz

10. Longer-Term Mental Health Interventions for Adults Following Disasters and Mass Violence, Beverley Raphael and Sally Wooding

11. Consultation to Groups, Organizations, and Communities, James E. McCarroll and Robert J. Ursano

12. On a Road Paved with Good Intentions, You Still Need a Compass: Monitoring and Evaluating Disaster Mental Health Services, Craig S. Rosen, Helena E. Young, and Fran H. Norris

IV. Specific Situations and Populations

13. Interventions for Children and Adolescents Following Disasters, Judith A. Cohen, Anthony P. Mannarino, Laura E. Gibson, Stephen J. Cozza, Melissa J. Brymer, and Laura Murray

14. Rapid Development of Family Assistance Centers: Lessons Learned Following the September 11 Terrorist Attacks, Gregory A. Leskin, William J. Huleatt, Jack Herrmann, Lisa R. LaDue, and Fred D. Gusman

15. Psychiatric Intervention for Medical and Surgical Patients Following Traumatic Injuries, Harold J. Wain, Geoffrey G. Grammer, John Stasinos, and Catherine M. DeBoer

16. Mitigation of Psychological Effects of Weapons of Mass Destruction, Ross H. Pastel and Elspeth Cameron Ritchie

17. Promoting Disaster Recovery in Ethnic-Minority Individuals and Communities, Fran H. Norris and Margarita Alegría

18. Toward Understanding and Creating Systems of Postdisaster Care: A Case Study of New York's Response to the World Trade Center Disaster, Fran H. Norris, Jessica L. Hamblen, Patricia J. Watson, Josef I. Ruzek, Laura E. Gibson, Betty J. Pfefferbaum, Jennifer L. Price, Susan P. Stevens, Bruce H. Young, and Matthew J. Friedman

19. Outreach Strategies: An Experiential Description of the Outreach Methodologies Used in the September 11 Disaster Response in New York, April J. Naturale

V. Creating an Agenda for the Future

20. Conducting Research on Mental Health Interventions, Brett T. Litz and Laura E. Gibson

21. Mental Health and Behavioral Interventions for Victims of Disasters and Mass Violence: Caring, Planning, and Needs, Robert J. Ursano and Matthew J. Friedman


About the Editors

Elspeth Cameron Ritchie, MD, MPH, is Psychiatry Consultant to the U.S. Army Surgeon General. Her assignments and other missions have taken her to Korea, Somalia, Iraq, Israel, and Vietnam. An internationally recognized expert, Dr. Ritchie brings a unique public health approach to the management of disaster and combat mental health issues. She has published numerous articles on forensic, disaster, and military operational psychiatry.

Patricia J. Watson, PhD, is an Educational Specialist, National Center for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), and Assistant Professor of Psychiatry, Dartmouth Medical School. At the National Center for PTSD, she collaborates with other national agencies and subject-matter experts to create publications for public and mental health interventions following large-scale terrorism, disasters, and pandemic flu. Special areas of professional interest include science-to-service interventions in disaster/terrorism events, early intervention treatments for trauma, the effects of childhood trauma on adult coping and development, trauma in children and adolescents, the interface between disability/injury and quality of life, and growth aspects of trauma.

Matthew J. Friedman, MD, PhD, is Executive Director, National Center for PTSD, and Professor of Psychiatry and Pharmacology, Dartmouth Medical School. He has worked as a clinician and researcher for 30 years, and has published 15 books and over 140 chapters and scientific articles on stress and PTSD, biological psychiatry, psychopharmacology, and clinical outcome studies on depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, and chemical dependency. Listed in The Best Doctors in America, he is a Distinguished Fellow of the American Psychiatric Association; past president of the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies, which awarded him its Lifetime Achievement Award; and Chair of the scientific advisory board of the Anxiety Disorders Association of America.

Contributors

Margarita Alegría, PhD, Multicultural Mental Health Research Center, Cambridge Health Alliance, Somerville, Massachusetts; Department of Psychiatry, Cambridge Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Cambridge, Massachusetts

Paul Bartone, PhD, Industrial College of the Armed Forces, National Defense University, Fort McNair, Washington, DC

Richard A. Bryant, PhD, School of Psychology, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia

Melissa J. Brymer, PsyD, National Child Traumatic Stress Network, Los Angeles, California

Judith A. Cohen, MD, Center for Traumatic Stress in Children and Adolescents, Department of Psychiatry, Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Department of Psychiatry, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Stephen J. Cozza, MD, Department of Psychiatry, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, DC

Catherine M. DeBoer, BS, Psychiatry Consultation Liaison Services, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, DC

James Demer, MD, Psychiatrist, 10th Mountain Division, U.S. Army, Fort Drum, New York

Matthew J. Friedman, MD, National Center for PTSD, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, White River Junction, Vermont; Department of Psychiatry, Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, New Hampshire

Laura E. Gibson, PhD, Behavior Therapy and Psychotherapy Center, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont

Geoffrey G. Grammer, MD, Medical Corps, U.S. Army; Psychiatry Consultation Liaison Services, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, DC

Fred D. Gusman, MSW, National Center for PTSD, Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System, Menlo Park, California

Jessica L. Hamblen, PhD, National Center for PTSD, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, White River Junction, Vermont; Department of Psychiatry, Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, New Hampshire

Jack Herrmann, MEd, Center for Disaster Medicine and Emergency Preparedness and Department of Psychiatry, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York

William J. Huleatt, LCSW, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, North Atlantic Regional Medical Command, Washington, DC

Adrian T. Kent, JD, PhD, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Tulsa, Oklahoma

Lisa R. LaDue, MSW, National Mass Fatalities Institute, Kirkwood Community College, Cedar Rapids, Iowa

Gregory A. Leskin, PhD, National Center for PTSD, Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System, Menlo Park, California

Brett T. Litz, PhD, National Center for PTSD, Boston Department of Veterans Affairs Health Care System, Boston, Massachusetts; Department of Psychology, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts

Anthony P. Mannarino, PhD, Department of Psychiatry, Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Department of Psychiatry, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

James E. McCarroll, PhD, Center for the Study of Traumatic Stress, Department of Psychiatry, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland

Laura Murray, PhD, Department of International Health, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts

April J. Naturale, MSW, Disaster Mental Health Management and Training, Montclair, New Jersey

Fran H. Norris, PhD, National Center for PTSD, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, White River Junction, Vermont; Department of Psychiatry, Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, New Hampshire

Roderick J. Ørner, PhD, Department of Psychological Services, Lincolnshire Partnership HHS Trust, Baverstock House, University of Lincoln, Lincoln, United Kingdom

Ross H. Pastel, PhD, Medical Service Corps, U.S. Army; Safety, Biosurety, Operations, Plans, and Security, USAMRIID, Fort Detrick, Maryland

Betty J. Pfefferbaum, MD, JD, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma

Jennifer L. Price, PhD, Department of Psychology, Georgetown College, Georgetown, Kentucky

Beverley Raphael, MD, Department of Mental Health, University of Western Sydney, Sydney, Australia

Elspeth Cameron Ritchie, MD, Department of Psychiatry, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland

Craig S. Rosen, PhD, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California; National Center for PTSD, Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System, Menlo Park, California

Josef I. Ruzek, PhD, National Center for PTSD, Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System, Menlo Park, California

Mark S. Salzer, PhD, Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Arieh Y. Shalev, MD, Department of Psychiatry, Hadassah Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel

Anthony H. Speier, PhD, Division of Program Development and Implementation, Louisiana Office of Mental Health, Baton Rouge, Louisiana

John Stasinos, MD, Department of Psychiatry, Tripler Army Medical Center, Honolulu, Hawaii

Susan P. Stevens, PsyD, National Center for PTSD, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, White River Junction, Vermont; Department of Psychiatry, Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, New Hampshire

Robert J. Ursano, MD, Center for the Study of Traumatic Stress, Department of Psychiatry, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland

Harold J. Wain, PhD, Department of Psychiatry, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland

Patricia J. Watson, PhD, National Center for PTSD, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, White River Junction, Vermont; Department of Psychiatry, Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, New Hampshire

Marlene Wong, MSW, Los Angeles Unified School District, Los Angeles, California

Sally Wooding, PhD, Department of Mental Health, University of Western Sydney, Sydney, Australia

Bruce H. Young, MSW, National Center for PTSD, Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System, Menlo Park, California

Helena E. Young, PhD, National Center for PTSD, Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System, Menlo Park, California

Course Use

May serve as a text in graduate-level courses or residency programs.