Dual-Process Theories of the Social Mind

Edited by Jeffrey W. Sherman, Bertram Gawronski, and Yaacov Trope

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April 22, 2014
ISBN 9781462514397
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624 Pages
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This volume provides an authoritative synthesis of a dynamic, influential area of psychological research. Leading investigators address all aspects of dual-process theories: their core assumptions, conceptual foundations, and applications to a wide range of social phenomena. In 38 chapters, the volume addresses the pivotal role of automatic and controlled processes in attitudes and evaluation; social perception; thinking and reasoning; self-regulation; and the interplay of affect, cognition, and motivation. Current empirical and methodological developments are described. Critiques of the duality approach are explored and important questions for future research identified.

“One may begin to wish for the good old days when automatic was automatic and controlled was…well, notautomatic. Yet a path forward does emerge from the book, a sort of ‘self-regulation intervention’ for researchers who develop or apply dual-process models. Rather than automatically relying on our habitual and occasionally somewhat vaguely defined dichotomies, we should make our assumptions explicit and think through the degree to which our work is addressing operating principles, operating conditions, or both. This is the level of deliberation that the editors required of their contributors, and it is an excellent general standard for psychological science….In spite of the ubiquity of dual-process models and the plethora of studies from this perspective, the future shape of this research seems wide open, and Dual-Process Theories of the Social Mindoffers a wide variety of starting points for those who will carry it forward.”

PsycCRITIQUES


“A very useful update to the state of the art in the field….The editors have done an admirable job of organizing the myriad of models while also including contributions that address the concerns that have arisen with their use. The combination of the large number of models covered along with the focus upon their systematic analysis helps to create a text that truly captures the current zeitgeist of the field, providing both clarity for existing models and suggesting paths forward towards future research. As such, it would be of greatest use as a reference for researchers and graduate students either already employing dual-process explanations field or those interested in using them appropriately and effectively in new research. It would also be of use as a graduate level text for social psychology and judgment and decision making courses, as well as classes in other fields interested in the influence of controlled and automatic processing on social behavior.”

Journal of Social Psychology


“Two-mode models are social psychology's best insight; this volume assembles major contemporary contributors.  Researchers at all stages—from students to faculty—will benefit from reading and using this book.”

—Susan T. Fiske, PhD, Eugene Higgins Professor, Psychology and Public Affairs, Princeton University


“Sherman, Gawronski, and Trope have produced a landmark volume on the yin and yang of social cognition. This book is thorough, thought-provoking, scholarly, and engaging. As the chapters amply demonstrate, the separation of social thought into its component processes has led to numerous important advances in social psychology, and often to fundamental questions about what it means to be human. Dual-Process Theories of the Social Mind will be a great accompaniment to a variety of advanced undergraduate and graduate courses, and likely will be one of the most regularly accessed books on your office shelf.”

—William von Hippel, PhD, School of Psychology, University of Queensland, Australia


“Sherman, Gawronski and Trope have gathered wide-ranging and thoughtful chapters on a topic that is at the center of psychology—the dual ways in which our minds think, feel, and initiate action. These discussions will inform and challenge your thinking and provide a more sophisticated understanding of the heart of social cognition.”

—Mahzarin R. Banaji, PhD, Richard Clarke Cabot Professor of Social Ethics, Department of Psychology, Harvard University

Table of Contents

I. The Basics

1. Two of What?: A Conceptual Analysis of Dual-Process Theories, Bertram Gawronski, Jeffrey W. Sherman, and Yaacov Trope

2. Examining the Mapping Problem in Dual-Process Models, Agnes Moors

3. Conscious and Unconscious: Toward an Integrative Understanding of Human Mental Life and Action, Roy F. Baumeister and John A. Bargh

4. What Is Control?: A Conceptual Analysis, Kentaro Fujita, Yaacov Trope, William A. Cunningham, and Nira Liberman

II. Dual-Systems Models

5. Two Systems of Reasoning: An Update, Steven Sloman

6. Rationality, Intelligence, and the Defining Features of Type 1 and Type 2 Processing, Keith A. Stanovich, Richard F. West, and Maggie E. Toplak

7. The Reflective-Impulsive Model, Fritz Strack and Roland Deutsch

III. Measurement and Formal Modeling

8. Dual-Process Theory from a Process Dissociation Perspective, B. Keith Payne and C. Daryl Cameron

9. Process Models Require Process Measures, Jeffrey W. Sherman, Regina Krieglmeyer, and Jimmy Calanchini

10. Random-Walk and Diffusion Models, Karl Christoph Klauer

IV. Attitudes and Evaluation

11. The MODE Model: Attitude-Behavior Processes as a Function of Motivation and Opportunity, Russell H. Fazio and Michael A. Olson

12. The Elaboration Likelihood and Metacognitive Models of Attitudes: Implications for Prejudice, the Self, and Beyond, Richard E. Petty and Pablo Briñol

13. The Associative-Propositional Evaluation Model: Operating Principles and Operating Conditions of Evaluation, Bertram Gawronski and Galen V. Bodenhausen

14. The Systems of Evaluation Model: A Dual-Systems Approach to Attitudes, Allen R. McConnell and Robert J. Rydell

V. Social Perception

15. Controlled Processing and Automatic Processing in the Formation of Spontaneous Trait Inferences, Randy J. McCarthy and John T. Skowronski

16. The Dynamic Interactive Model of Person Construal: Coordinating Sensory and Social Processes, Jonathan B. Freeman and Nalini Ambady

17. Person Perception: Integrating Category-Level and Individual-Level Information in Face Construal, Kimberly A. Quinn and C. Neil Macrae

18. Dual-Process Models of Trait Judgments of Self and Other: An Overview and Critique, Stanley B. Klein

19. Automaticity, Control, and the Social Brain, Robert P. Spunt and Matthew D. Lieberman

VI. Thinking and Reasoning

20. The Human Unconscious: A Functional Perspective, Ran R. Hassin and Asael Y. Sklar

21. Metacognitive Processes and Subjective Experiences, Rainer Greifeneder and Norbert Schwarz

22. Same or Different?: How Similarity versus Dissimilarity Focus Shapes Social Information Processing, Thomas Mussweiler

23. Visual versus Verbal Thinking and Dual-Process Moral Cognition, Elinor Amit, Sara Gottlieb, and Joshua D. Greene

24. Prolonged Thought: Proposing Type 3 Processing, Ap Dijksterhuis, Madelijn Strick, Maarten W. Bos, and Loran F. Nordgren

VII. Habits, Goals, and Motivation

25. Habits in Dual-Process Models, Wendy Wood, Jennifer S. Labrecque, Pei-Ying Lin, and Dennis Rünger

26. Conscious and Unconscious Goal Pursuit: Similar Functions, Different Processes?, Ruud Custers and Henk Aarts

27. The Implicit Volition Model: The Unconscious Nature of Goal Pursuit, Gordon B. Moskowitz

28. Promotion and Prevention: How "0" Can Create Dual Motivational Forces, E. Tory Higgins

VIII. Self-Regulation and Control

29. Beyond Control versus Automaticity: Psychological Processes Driving Postsuppressional Rebound, Jens Förster and Nira Liberman

30. The Explicit and Implicit Ways of Overcoming Temptation, Ayelet Fishbach and Luxi Shen

31. Breaking the Prejudice Habit: Automaticity and Control in the Context of a Long-Term Goal, Patrick S. Forscher and Patricia G. Devine

32. Emotion Generation and Emotion Regulation: Moving beyond Traditional Dual-Process Accounts, Gal Sheppes and James J. Gross

IX. Criticism and Alternatives

33. The Limits of Automaticity, Klaus Fiedler and Mandy Hütter

34. The Unimodel Unfolding, Arie W. Kruglanski, Kristen M. Klein, Antonio Pierro, and Lucia Mannetti

35. Why a Propositional Single-Process Model of Associative Learning Deserves to Be Defended, Jan De Houwer

36. How Many Processes to Ground a Concept?, Gün R. Semin, Margarida V. Garrido, and Ana Rita Farias

37. Dual Experiences, Multiple Processes: Looking Beyond Dualities for Mechanisms of the Mind, David M. Amodio

38. Rethinking Duality: Criticisms and Ways Forward, Melissa J. Ferguson, Thomas C. Mann, and Michael T. Wojnowicz


About the Editors

Jeffrey W. Sherman, PhD, is Professor of Psychology at the University of California, Davis. His research investigates the cognitive processes underlying social psychology and behavior, with particular interests in attitude formation and change and how stereotypes and prejudice affect social perception. Dr. Sherman is Editor of the journal Social Cognition. A Fellow of the Association for Psychological Science (APS), the Society for Personality and Social Psychology (SPSP), and the Society for Experimental Social Psychology (SESP), he is a recipient of other honors including the Theoretical Innovation Prize from SPSP and the Anneliese Maier Research Award from the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation and the German Federal Ministry of Education.

Bertram Gawronski, PhD, is Professor of Psychology at the University of Texas at Austin. His research investigates the mental underpinnings and behavioral consequences of spontaneous and deliberate evaluations of objects, individuals, groups, and social issues. Dr. Gawronski's work has been recognized with honors including the Theoretical Innovation Prize from SPSP, the Career Trajectory Award from SESP, the Early Career Award from the International Social Cognition Network, the Early Researcher Award from the Ministry of Research and Innovation of Ontario, and the Charlotte and Karl Bühler Award from the German Psychological Society. He is a fellow of APS, SESP, and SPSP.

Yaacov Trope, PhD, is Professor of Psychology at New York University. His research investigates the interrelations among cognition, motivation, and self-regulation in the social context. Particular interests include how psychological distance influences the representations of objects, and, thereby, the predictions, evaluations, and choices individuals make regarding those objects; self-control processes; and the role of affective states and personal desires in social judgment and decision making. Dr. Trope is a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, APS, SESP, and SPSP.

Contributors

Henk Aarts, PhD, Department of Social and Organizational Psychology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands

Nalini Ambady, PhD (deceased), Department of Psychology, Stanford University, Stanford, California

Elinor Amit, PhD, Department of Psychology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts

David M. Amodio, PhD, Department of Psychology, New York University, New York, New York

John A. Bargh, PhD, Department of Psychology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut

Roy F. Baumeister, PhD, Department of Psychology, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida

Galen V. Bodenhausen, PhD, Department of Psychology, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois

Maarten W. Bos, PhD, Negotiation, Organizations and Markets, Harvard Business School, Boston, Massachusetts

Pablo Briñol, PhD, Faculty of Psychology, Autonomous University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain

Jimmy Calanchini, BA, Department of Psychology, University of California at Davis, Davis, California

C. Daryl Cameron, PhD, Department of Psychology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa

William A. Cunningham, PhD, Department of Psychology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio

Ruud Custers, PhD, Department of Cognitive, Perceptual, and Brain Sciences, University College London, London, United Kingdom

Roland Deutsch, PhD, Institute of Psychology, Technical University of Dresden, Dresden, Germany

Patricia G. Devine, PhD, Department of Psychology, Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin—Madison, Madison, Wisconsin

Ap Dijksterhuis, PhD, Behavioral Science Institute, Radboud University, Nijmegen, The Netherlands

Ana Rita Farias, PhD, Lisbon University Institute, Lisbon, Portugal, and Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands

Russell H. Fazio, PhD, Department of Psychology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio

Melissa J. Ferguson, PhD, Department of Psychology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York

Klaus Fiedler, PhD, Department of Psychology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany

Ayelet Fishbach, PhD, Booth School of Business, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois

Patrick S. Forscher, BA, Department of Psychology, Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, Wisconsin

Jens Förster, PhD, Department of Social Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Jonathan B. Freeman, PhD, Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire

Kentaro Fujita, PhD, Department of Psychology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio

Margarida V. Garrido, PhD, Department of Social and Organizational Psychology, University, Institute of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal

Bertram Gawronski, PhD, Department of Psychology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas

Sara Gottlieb, BA, Department of Psychology, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California

Joshua D. Greene, PhD, Department of Psychology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts

Rainer Greifeneder, PhD, Department of Psychology, University of Basel, Basel Switzerland

James J. Gross, PhD, Department of Psychology, Stanford University, Stanford, California

Ran R. Hassin, PhD, Psychology Department, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel

E. Tory Higgins, PhD, Department of Psychology, Columbia University, New York, New York

Jan De Houwer, PhD, Department of Psychology, University of Ghent, Ghent, Belgium

Mandy Hütter, PhD, Department of Psychology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany

Karl Christoph Klauer, PhD, Institute for Psychology, the University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany

Kristen M. Klein, PhD, Analytic Services, Inc., Falls Church, Virginia

Stanley B. Klein, PhD, Department of Psychology, University of California at Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California

Regina Krieglmeyer, PhD, Department of Psychology, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany

Arie W. Kruglanski, PhD, Department of Psychology, University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, Maryland

Jennifer S. Labrecque, MA, Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California

Nira Liberman, PhD, Department of Psychology, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel

Matthew D. Lieberman, PhD, Department of Psychology, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California

Pei-Ying Lin, MA, Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California

C. Neil Macrae, PhD, School of Psychology, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, Scotland

Thomas C. Mann, BS, Department of Psychology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York

Lucia Mannetti, PhD, Department of Developmental and Social Psychology, Sapienza, University, Rome, Italy

Randy J. McCarthy, PhD, Center for the Study of Family Violence and Sexual Assault, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, Illinois

Allen R. McConnell, PhD, Department of Psychology, Miami University, Oxford, Ohio

Agnes Moors, PhD, Department of Experimental Clinical and Health Psychology, Ghent, University, Ghent, Belgium

Gordon B. Moskowitz, PhD, Department of Psychology, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania

Thomas Mussweiler, PhD, Department of Psychology, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany

Loran F. Nordgren, PhD, Kellogg School of Management, Northwestern University, Evanston, Indiana

Michael A. Olson, PhD, Department of Psychology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee

B. Keith Payne, PhD, Department of Psychology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill,

Chapel Hill, North Carolina

Richard E. Petty, PhD, Department of Psychology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio

Antonio Pierro, PhD, Department of Developmental and Social Psychology, Sapienza, University, Rome, Italy

Kimberly A. Quinn, PhD, Department of Psychology, DePaul University, Chicago, Illinois

Dennis Rünger, PhD, Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California

Robert J. Rydell, PhD, Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana

Norbert Schwarz, PhD, Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California

Gün R. Semin, PhD, Faculty of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands

Luxi Shen, BS, Booth School of Business, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois

Gal Sheppes, PhD, School of Psychological Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel

Jeffrey W. Sherman, PhD, Department of Psychology, University of California at Davis, Davis, California

Asael Y. Sklar, MA, Department of Psychology, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel

John T. Skowronski, PhD, Department of Psychology, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, Illinois

Steven Sloman, PhD, Department of Cognitive, Linguistic, and Psychological Sciences, Providence, Rhode Island

Robert P. Spunt, PhD, Division of Humanities and Social Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California

Keith A. Stanovich, PhD, Department of Human Development and Applied Psychology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Fritz Strack, PhD, Department of Psychology, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany

Madelijn Strick, PhD, Social and Organizational Psychology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands

Maggie E. Toplak, PhD, Department of Psychology, York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Yaacov Trope, PhD, Department of Psychology, New York University, New York, New York

Richard F. West, PhD, Department of Graduate Psychology, James Madison University, Harrisonburg, Virginia

Michael T. Wojnowicz, PhD, Department of Statistics, University of California at Irvine, Irvine, California

Wendy Wood, PhD, Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California

Audience

Social and personality psychologists; students in psychology.

Course Use

May serve as a supplemental text in advanced undergraduate- and graduate-level courses.