Survey Scales

A Guide to Development, Analysis, and Reporting

Robert L. Johnson and Grant B. Morgan

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August 2, 2016
ISBN 9781462526970
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269 Pages
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1. Scales in Surveys

Introduction

An Overview of the Survey Scale Development Process

Attitudes, Knowledge, and Behaviors

Key Qualities of a Survey Scale: Reliability and Validity

Further Reading

Chapter Exercises

2. Adopting or Adapting an Existing Scale

Introduction

Reviewing Potential Instruments for Adoption or Adaptation

The Mental Measurements Yearbook: A Source for Reviews of Instruments

Plagiarism and Copyright Infringement

Further Reading

Chapter Exercises

3. Establishing a Framework for the Development of a Survey Scale

Introduction

Elements and Format

Functions of the Conceptual Framework in the Development of a Survey Scale

Construction of a Conceptual Framework

Further Reading

Chapter Exercises

4. Item-Writing Guidelines

Introduction

Addressing Relevance

Addressing Audience

Addressing Language

Addressing Item Structure

Addressing Conventions

Guidelines Specific to Item Type

Number of Items

Further Reading

Chapter Exercises

5. Development of Response Scales

Introduction

Length of the Item Response Scale

Numeric and Verbal Response Labels

The Questionable Middle Position

Further Reading

Chapter Exercises

6. Formatting and Reviewing

Introduction

Survey Format and Administration Method

Item Formats Specific to Administration Methods

Complete Reviews and a Pilot of the Survey Scale

Further Reading

Chapter Exercises

7. Analysis of Survey Scale Data

Introduction

Levels of Measurement

Frequencies

Measures of Central Tendency

Measures of Variability

Measures of Association

Obtaining Descriptive Statistics

Further Reading

Chapter Exercises

8. Investigating Scale Quality

Introduction

Field Testing

Response Distributions: Item Quality

Investigating Reliability

Investigating Validity

Further Reading

Chapter Exercises

9. Factor Analysis

Introduction

General Purposes and Processes Associated with Factor-Analytic Procedures

Testing Assumptions

Dimensionality

Extraction: Principal Axis Factoring

Determining the Number of Factors (Model Selection)

Rotation

How to Interpret Factor Solutions

Calculating Factor Scores

Sample Size

Steps after EFA

How to Obtain an EFA Model

Further Reading

Chapter Exercises

10. Documenting the Development of the Survey Scale

Introduction

Determining the Need for a Data Display

Developing Tables

Table Structure

Table Data

Developing Graphs

Structure of a Graph

Organization of Data in a Graph

Narrative about Table or Graph

Concluding Thoughts

Further Reading

Chapter Exercises

Appendix. Analysis of Data: Inferential Statistics

Introduction

Sampling

Inferential Statistics

Inferential Procedures

Nonparametric Inferential Statistics

Further Reading

Appendix Exercises

Sample Solutions to Chapter Exercises

Glossary of Key Terms

References

Author Index

Subject Index

About the Authors

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